CERTIFICATES

 

SAFETY EQUIPMENT

 

Life jackets

Inspection and reconditioning of all types of life jackets.

 

Fire Extinguishers

Image result for Fire Extinguishers

Water and Foam

Water and Foam fire extinguishers extinguish the fire by taking away the heat element of the fire triangle. Foam agents also separate the oxygen element from the other elements.

Water extinguishers are for Class A fires only - they should not be used on Class B or C fires. The discharge stream could spread the flammable liquid in a Class B fire or could create a shock hazard on a Class C fire.

 

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon Dioxide fire extinguishers extinguish fire by taking away the oxygen element of the fire triangle and also be removing the heat with a very cold discharge.

Carbon dioxide can be used on Class B & C fires. They are usually ineffective on Class A fires.

 

Dry Chemical

Dry Chemical fire extinguishers extinguish the fire primarily by interrupting the chemical reaction of the fire triangle.

Today's most widely used type of fire extinguisher is the multipurpose dry chemical that is effective on Class A, B, and C fires. This agent also works by creating a barrier between the oxygen element and the fuelelement on Class A fires.

Ordinary dry chemical is for Class B & C fires only. It is important to use the correct extinguisher for the type of fuel! Using the incorrect agent can allow the fire to re-ignite after apparently being extinguished succesfully.

 

Wet Chemical

Wet Chemical is a new agent that extinguishes the fire by removing the heat of the fire triangle and prevents re-ignition by creating a barrier between the oxygen and fuel elements.

Wet chemical of Class K extinguishers were developed for modern, high efficiency deep fat fryers in commercial cooking operations. Some may also be used on Class A fires in commercial kitchens.

 

Clean Agent

Halogenated or Clean Agent extinguishers include the halon agents as well as the newer and less ozone depleting halocarbon agents. They extinguish the fire by interrupting the chemical reaction and/or removing heat from the fire triangle.

Clean agent extinguishers are effective on Class A, B and C fires. Smaller sized handheld extinguishers are not large enough to obtain a 1A rating and may carry only a Class B and C rating.

 

Dry Powder

Dry Powder extinguishers are similar to dry chemical except that they extinguish the fire by separating the fuel from the oxygen element or by removing the heat element of the fire triangle.

However, dry powder extinguishers are for Class D or combustible metal fires, only. They are ineffective on all other classes of fires.

 

Water Mist

Water Mist extinguishers are a recent development that extinguish the fire by taking away the heat element of the fire triangle. They are an alternative to the clean agent extinguishers where contamination is a concern.

Water mist extinguishers are primarily for Class A fires, although they are safe for use on Class C fires as well.

 

Cartridge Operated Dry Chemical

Cartridge Operated Dry Chemical fire extinguishers extinguish the fire primarily by interrupting the chemical reaction of the fire triangle.

Like the stored pressure dry chemical extinguishers, the multipurpose dry chemical is effective on Class A, B, and C fires. This agent also works by creating a barrier between the oxygen element and the fuel element on Class A fires.

Ordinary dry chemical is for Class B & C fires only. It is important to use the correct extinguisher for the type of fuel! Using the incorrect agent can allow the fire to re-ignite after apparently being extinguished successfully.

 

Fixed Co2 Systems

Image result for Fixed Co2 Systems

CO2 flooding system or central bank CO2 system is one of the common fixed fire fighting system installed on most of the ships. It releases carbon dioxide (CO2) in bulk quantity to a protected space (such as engine room, cargo hold, purifier room, pump room, etc.) under fire. Smothering action of CO2 extinguishes the fire thereby preventing spreading of fire to other parts of the ship. It consist of several CO2 cylinders located in a separate room, called CO2 room. These bottles contain CO2 in liquid state. When the fire in a protected space goes out of control or in a situation when the fire is not able to extinguish by local fire fighting media, CO2 flooding system comes into picture. CO2 from the bottles directed via common manifold, main valve and distribution pipe lines to nozzles through which it is released to the protected space for fire extinction. Due to safety reasons, the CO2 flooding system is manually released from a release cabinet located outside the protected space.

Carbon dioxide is the fire extinguising medium used in CO2 flooding system. It is an effective fire suppression agent applicable to a wide range of fire hazards. It has a high rate of expansion which allows it to work fast. When applied to a fire, CO2 provides a heavy blanket of gas that reduces the oxygen level to a point where combustion cannot occur. Since carbon dioxide is a gas, there is no clean up associated with a system discharge. CO2, a compound of carbon and oxygen, is a colorless gas which cause coughing to occur when inhaled. At higher concentrations it is acutely toxic. Low and high pressure CO2 is used for the fire protection of machinery spaces, pump rooms, cargo holds, paint stores and galley exhaust ventilation ducts on board ships.

There are several advantages for the CO2 as a fire fighting medium. They are:

  • Density is 1.5 times higher than air. So CO2 settles down and displaces air.

  • It can be easily liquefied and bottled.

  • 20% – 30% CO2 concentration extinguishes fire by smothering

  • Non-corrosive

  • Non- conductor of electricity

  • No residues left after application

  • No deterioration with age

Similarly there are some disadvantages also, such as:

  • CO2 is highly asphyxiating. 9% concentration causes unconsciousness within minutes

  • Very little cooling effect. So there is danger of re-ignition.

  • When discharged, solid CO2 particles present and generate sufficient static electricity to produce spark.

 

Clean Agents: FM200, Novec 1230

Related image

FM200 fire suppression is also known as HFC227ea. FM200 is a waterless fire protection system, it is discharged into the risk within 10 seconds and suppresses the fire immediately.

FM200 fire suppression is found as an active compound as a propellant in medical inhalers. This is goes without saying that FM200 gas is extremely safe for occupied spaces with the correct fire suppression design.

There is a common misconception that FM200 gas reduces oxygen this is not true! FM200 is a synthetic/chemical fire suppression gas and extinguishes a fire by removing the free radicals or heat elements from the fire triangle. (Oxygen, Heat and Fuel).

The typical concentration of an FM200 system is normally between 7.9% to 8.5%. This concentration is determined by the risk that is being protected and by the OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturers) and the ISO14520 standards for fire suppression systems.

The main advantage of FM200 fire suppression, is the small amount of agent required to suppress a fire. This means fewer cylinders, therefore less wasted space for storage of FM200 cylinders.
FM200 systems reach extinguishing levels in 10 seconds or less, stopping ordinary combustible, electrical, and flammable liquid fires before they cause significant damage. FM200 extinguishes the fire quickly, which means less damage, lower repair costs. Like any other fire suppression system, FM200 systems are designed with an extra margin of safety for people. Refilling FM200 is simple and cost effective, therefore, it also means less downtime and disruption to your business.

FM200 is classed as a clean agent which means that it is safe to use within occupied spaces. The safety of FM200 fire suppression environments is proven in over a decade of real-world experience and validated by extensive scientific studies. FM200 systems take up less storage space than most other fire suppressants.

In addition to the fire protection benefits of using FM200, the environment will benefit as well. FM200 fire suppressant does not deplete stratospheric ozone, and has minimal impact on the environment relative to the impact a catastrophic fire would have. FM200 fire suppression is a solution that is already working in more than 100 thousand applications, in more than 70 nations around the world.

 

Novec 1230 Fire Protection Fluid is a clean agent fire extinguishant which was developed as a halon replacement and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) alternative. It belongs to a family of chemicals called halocarbons, a group which includes HFCs and fluoroketones. Novec 1230 fluid is a fluoroketone, while chemical clean agents like FM-200™ and ECARO-25® are HFCs (HFC-227ea, HFC-125). Novec 1230 fluid has a global warming potential (GWP) of less than one while these HFCs have a GWP of more than 3000. Novec 1230 fluid has the highest margin of safety for human occupancy among clean agents, including inert gas.

Protect what matters.

  • When you specify a fire protection system, your choices can determine whether a person, valuable asset or even an entire business survives a fire. When that system uses Novec 1230 fluid, you may confidently offer your client a solution that:

    • Extinguishes a fire in seconds, before it even starts and long before water-based systems discharge.

    • Helps protect irreplaceable paper documents and electronics. Because Novec 1230 fluid is a waterless fire suppression solution, it leaves no residue and is electrically non-conductive.

    • Provides the highest margin of safety for human occupancy of any clean agent solution.

    •  Is not subject to the Halon 1301 phaseout or HFC phasedown under any global regulatory body, including the Montreal Protocol.

    • Comes with a global environmental warranty — the 3M™ Blue Sky℠ Warranty, designed to provide additional peace of mind.

    • Is stored as a liquid and discharged as a gas.

    • Is appropriate for Class A, B and C fire hazards.

 

Water Mist Systems

Image result for Water Mist Systems

A water mist system is a fire protection system which uses very fine water sprays (i.e. water mist). The small water droplets allow the water mist to control, suppress or extinguish fires by:

  • cooling both the flame and surrounding gases by evaporation
  • displacing oxygen by evaporation
  • attenuating radiant heat by the small droplets themselves

The effectiveness of a water mist system in fire suppression depends on its spray characteristics, which include the droplet size distribution, flux density and spray dynamics, with respect to the fire scenario, such as the shielding of the fuel, fire size and ventilation conditions.

The use of water mist fire suppression, when compared to the use of gaseous agents and traditional sprinkler systems, has revealed advantages such as:

  • Immediate activation
  • High efficiency in the suppression of a wide variety of fires
  • Minimized water damage
  • Environmentally sound characteristics
  • No toxic problems

Marioff is renowned for pioneering high pressure water mist fire protection technology for use in passenger ferries. Today, HI-FOG® protects people, property and business continuity in a wide range of applications both on land and at sea.

The NFPA 750 defines three pressure regions for water mist-generating technologies: low, intermediate and high pressure systems. Marioff’s rigorous testing procedures, combined with the company’s unrivalled experience, have shown that high pressure water mist consistently delivers:

  • Better penetration into the seat of the fire
  • Superior coverage of the protected volume
  • An improved cooling effect from better mixing of gases and high evaporation rate
  • Lower overall system weight
  • Less water consumption

 

Medical oxygen

Image result for Medical oxygen

Many people may think that getting oxygen is easy since it’s in the air we breathe. Our ambient air (i.e., the natural air around us) comprises of only 20% oxygen; the rest is a mixture of nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide and other gases. To get pure oxygen, oxygen plants must employ a specialized technique to separate the oxygen from the air, often by collecting air in its gaseous form and liquefying it at cold temperatures.

Once it’s collected, it must be inspected and packaged into different grades.

There are several ways that industry professionals refer to oxygen grades. The Compression Gas Association (CGA) has identified seven grades of oxygen, A through G, which determine how pure the oxygen is. Oxygen may also be designated as USP, which means that it has been certified by the eponymous organization, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP).

Almost all oxygen produced in plants now meets USP requirements, mainly due to economic reasons of storing oxygen in separate facilities, but it is the purity of the oxygen (i.e., how much of any other gases are still present) and the way the oxygen cylinders are filled that separate oxygen grades. There are four accepted “grades” of oxygen used in various industries: welding, research, aviation and medical.

Welding oxygen is used in certain types of welding techniques, either to aid in the production of heat or as an additive to aid in stability of the process. While in use, other contaminants may enter the oxygen cylinder, such as acetylene, which is used during one type of welding. When a cylinder must be filled with oxygen, the fill station operator will detect whether there is a presence of acetylene. If there is, the cylinder is cleaned and later filled with oxygen. If the cylinder is labeled for medical oxygen, the cylinder must be evacuated before being refilled.

Aviation breathing oxygen (ABO) is strictly regulated, and neither medical nor industrial grade oxygen can be substituted because of these standards. The CGA’s Grade E is commonly also called aviator’s grade, and this oxygen must also go through additional drying steps before it goes into a cylinder.

Research grade oxygen is 99.999% pure (“five nines,” also called grade 5) and is used in both chemical research facilities and specialty welding applications in the aerospace industry.

Medical oxygen is used for oxygen therapy and hospitals, is designated as a drug and therefore must satisfy FDA requirements for compressed medical gas. One of the requirements is that cylinders containing oxygen must always be completed evacuated to minimize the risk of contamination. According to Dr. Larry Taylor from the University of Michigan, the FDA has prosecuted facilities for improperly filling medical grade oxygen cylinders.

Because the FDA classifies medical grade oxygen as a drug, you must have a prescription to purchase it as well as other oxygen-related medical devices, such as oxygen concentrators. It may seem like an unnecessary step since the production and fulfillment of medical grade oxygen is already regulated, but a prescription is an extra step to ensure that the oxygen you are getting is safe to use.

 

Air Breathing Apparatus

Image result for Air Breathing Apparatus

Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) are used to protect users against oxygen deficiency, dust, gases and vapors at plants, aboard vessels, at fire and in tunnels.
Ever since they were first introduced onto the market, SCBA has been widely used in such fields as firefighting, rescue operations, escape training at fire stations, iron works, chemical plants, nuclear facilities, hotels, etc.
The apparatus can be used even if in the oxygen deficiency or unknown the contaminants.
SCBA has the air breathing apparatus and oxygen breathing apparatus.

There are two types of Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus as below

Air Breathing Apparatus The SCBA supplies the compressed air from the air cylinder to the wearer through cylinder valve, pressure reducer, pressure demand valve or demand valve.
Exhaled air goes to the atmosphere through exhalation valve.
Oxygen Breathing Apparatus The SCBA supplies the compressed oxygen from the oxygen cylinder to the wearer through cylinder valve, pressure reducer, demand valve, etc.
Carbon dioxide in exhales air is absorbed by the absorbing canister, and oxygen is re-supplied through breathing bag.
This mechanism enables for long time use.

 

Survival Suit

An immersion suit is a body covering suit that is worn specifically for the purpose of remaining afloat and surviving during emergencies in high seas. This suit is therefore also known as a survival suit or a rescue suit. In today’s times, an immersion suit is one of the most important necessities on ships and oil rigs, considering the protection needed from the hazards of water.

Immersion suits are generally made of neoprene, a type of rubber that is completely waterproof and has an ability to withstand extreme temperatures of water and fire. The immersion suit fits the person’s body without exposing any part to the water. It also has a protective hood to cover the head and comes along with protective gloves.

A rescue suit is designed mainly in two colors – red and orange. Both the colors are kept bright (fluorescent) so that the suits can attract the attention of paramedics or rescue aid immediately.

The following are the SOLAS Regulations for Immersion Suits; to know how many immersion suits are present onboard a ship, one should refer to the “fire control and safety plan”:

  • Each person on board the ship must have his/her own personal immersion suit. Also, extra immersion suits should be provided for the watchkeepers
  • Immersion Suits may be of the kinds that are Insulated, Un-insulated, wearable with life jacket (all should have sufficient buoyancy)
  • Made of waterproof material
  • Internationally RED in color which is highly visible. Note that most other LSA equipment is bright ORANGE
  • The immersion suit should be unpacked and donned within a time frame of 2 minutes without any external help or assistance
  • The individual must be able to jump from a height of at least 4.5 meters into water without injury to life of any damage to the immersion suit
  • The suit should be able to cover the whole body except the face. Hands should be covered unless permanently attached gloves are provided
  • Retro-reflective tapes must be fitted
  • It shall not sustain burning or continue to melt after being totally enveloped in a fire for a period of 2 seconds
  • Normal work must be able to be carried out upon wearing
  • The wearer should be capable of climbing up and down a vertical ladder of at least 5 meters in length
  • The wearer must be able to swim a short distance
  • The immersion suit is worn in cold weather when the temperature is below the freezing point
  • The suit does not allow the body temperature to drop by more than 2 degrees when immersed for a period of 6 hours when the water temperature is between 0 and 2 degrees
  • The wearer of the suit, with or without the lifejacket shall be able to turn from a face down position to a face-up position in not more than 5 seconds
  • If a lifejacket is required along with the immersion suit, then it should be worn over the immersion suit and without assistance

There are basically three types of immersion suits. The main types can be described as follows:

  • The first type of a survival suit is something that is worn by fishermen who fish in extremely cold temperatures. These fishermen keep wearing the immersion suit continuously in order to make sure that their bodies do not lose heat and are kept continuously warm and insulated
  • The second type of rescue suit is the one that is kept on all ships, boats and oil rigs. It is a compulsory requirement without which workers cannot be expected to work on the ship or oil rigs. Only at the time of the critical situation, such immersion suits are worn by the workers
  • The third and final type of immersion suit is known as the Inflatable Immersion Suit. But unlike the two previous immersion suits, this rescue suit does not fully cover the person’s body. The inflated suit only covers a person’s hands and legs, thus helping to keep the person afloat and safe in emergency situations. Because of the compactness of the suit, this suit is easier to carry and transport than the previous two suits mentioned

Certain immersion suits are also inbuilt with an emergency torch, a whistle and a tagline that can be attached to the suit of the person who is being rescued. This tagline, also known as the buddy line, is provided to make sure that all the people are together and no person gets lost while in the water.

The technology in the creation and development of an immersion suit has come a long way. In the days to come, there will be even more advancements which will continue to make the application even more successful than what it is at present.

Anti-Exposure Suits

To know the number and location of the anti-exposure suits, refer to the “fire control and safety plan”

  • Made of non-flammable and waterproof material
  • International ORANGE in color which is highly visible
  • The suit should be unpacked and donned within 2 minutes without any external help or assistance
  • The suit shall make the wearer capable of jumping from a height of at least 4.5 meters into water without any injury to life or damage to the suit
  • Covers the whole body except the head and hands. Gloves and hood shall be provided for usage with the suit
  • Equipped with a pocket to place the handheld VHF transceiver
  • Has a lateral field of vision of 120 degrees
  • It shall not sustain burning or continue to melt after being totally enveloped in a fire for a period of 2 seconds
  • Normal work must be able to be carried out upon wearing
  • The wearer should be capable of climbing up and down a vertical ladder of at least 5 meters in length
  • The wearer should be able to swim through water for at least 25 meters and board a survival craft
  • The suit does not allow the body temperature to drop by more than 1.5 degrees per hour for the first 30 minutes when the water temperature is 5 degrees
  • The wearer of the suit, with or without the lifejacket shall be able to turn from a face down position to a face-up position in not more than 5 seconds

Thermal Protective Aids

Check the “fire control and safety plan” for the number and location of the TPAs

  • Made of non-flammable and waterproof material
  • International ORAGE in colour that is highly visible
  • TPA should have a thermal conductance of not more than 7800 W/m^2.K
  • The TPA shall reduce the convective and evaporative heat loss from the wearer’s body
  • TPAs should function in air temperature between -30 to +20 degrees
  • The wearer shall be able to remove the TPA in water within 2 minutes if it impairs the wearer’s ability to swim
  • Covers everything but the face
  • The TPAs should be such that they are unpacked and easily donned without assistance in a survival craft or a rescue boat

It is the duty of the third mate to ensure that regular checks are carried out on this imperative equipment to ensure that they function as supposed to if needed under unfortunate circumstances